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Timeline-Maps-20th Century Issues-21st century Issues-Important Personel-News Articles-Videos, Links, and Primary Sources-Summary




Timeline


1908: The Young Turks, a group of citizens craving reform,rebel against the rule of the last sultan
Screen_Shot_2012-02-10_at_8.26.03_PM.png of the Ottoman Empire, Abdulhamid II,who had ruled as a dictator in Turkey for 30 years.

1914: The Ottoman Empire joins WWI in alliance with Germany and the Triple Alliance by
bombing Russian Black Sea ports, and the Allied powers declare war on the Ottoman Empire on November 4.

1919-1922: Greece had been promised land in the Ottoman Empire after WWI by the British and Treaty of Sevres,
and when they attempted to extend their territory, they launched an attack on the Ottoman Empire and the Greco-Turkish war
begun. They were later defeated by the Turkish military leader Ataturk, and had to return to Greece by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)

1923:Turkey is established as a secular (non-religious) republic with Ataturk as it’s president,who
then launched new reforms to modernize Turkey, such as westernizing the country, establishing good relations with neighboring nations,
and adopting a new constitution a year later.

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1945: Turkey declares war on Germany at the very end of World War II, in which they had stayed neutral
until this point. When the Soviet Army entered Bulgaria, contact was eradicated between Germany and Turkey, which forced
Turkey to give up economic and diplomatic contact, and then declared war on Germany.

1947: During the Cold War, the Soviets in Russia tried to stir up communist revolutions in Turkey, but to prevent this from happening,the Americans aided them economically and militarily by creating the Truman Doctrine. (the Truman Doctrine was not created for Turkey specifically, but in general it did have the intent of aiding Europe post WWII in order to stop the spread of Communisim)The Americans believed the Turkish would
be an asset to the Russian forces if they were to join them, and therefore helped them.

(would be helpful for you to include a brief explanation of the Democrat Party led by Celal Bayar and Adrian Menderes here. That would explain the movement away from Ataurk's beliefs)

1960: The Turkish government passed legislation that restricted the freedom of the press that they thought would hurt the government economically
and politically, and in 1959 violent clashes between the government and opposition, who believed in strong Kemalist ideas (Ataturks beliefs),
broke out. The military was forced into a coup, and announced the goal was to create a democratic and just government.

1982: A new constitution is drafted by the military after another coup in 1980, and it identified Turkey’s government as secular,
parliamentary, and democratic. The previous military regime is abolished. ( It would have been helpful for you to briefly hi-light the military regime here and get a little at the lack of a stable govt during this time period (1970s)

2000-2001: Turkey goes through a major economic crisis. Previous to this stock market crash, the Turks had relied heavily
on trade with other countries, and their government lacked the ability to make economic growth on it’s own. This led to major inflation, and
caused the Turkish banks to lose $5 billion in total.

2003: A series of terrorist bomb attacks occur in the major city of Istanbul, killing 57 people and injuring 700.
74 people were charged with the bombing. (what was the nature/basis of the terrorism?)

2011? Arab spring, EU etc.

Overall, a very well crafted and informative timeline. I see that you have given attention to many of the ideas I hi-lighted in the sections below.






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Current Day Map of Turkey and Kurdish Population Map
A small caption that explains that Turkey struggles with threats from Kurdish separatists would put this graphic into context.


20th Century Issues

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1921 The Greco-Turkish War
  • Occurred after World War I, when the Greeks attempted to extend their territory into Turkish lands
  • These territories had been assigned to them by the Treaty of Sèvres, Aug. 10, 1920, which was imposed upon the weak Ottoman government at the end of WWI.
  • Greek army launched an attack in Anatolia against the nationalist Turks, who had defied the Ottoman government and would not recognize its treaty.
  • Greeks renewed their attack in July and advanced towards the capital city, Ankara
  • The Turks, however, commanded by the nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Atatürk), defeated them at the Sakarya River
  • A year later the Turks assumed control of the area and drove the Greeks out of Anatolia .
  • The Treaty of Lausanne, concluded on July 24, 1923 redistributed the disputed lands and the two belligerents also agreed to exchange their Greek and Turkish minority populations.

1960 Turkish coup d'état
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  • The Turkish Army overthrew the government
  • The Prime Minister and other members of his government were put on trial, and he was hanged in 1961, along with his Foreign Minister and his Finance Minister.

1971 Turkish coup d'état
  • The Turkish Army overthrew the government of the conservative prime minister, Suleyman Demirel.
  • During the 1970's-the absence of a political center, the weakness of the Presidential Office, and the inability to exercise the power to create laws all led to social and political stability.
  • The 1971 coup was largely seen as an attempt to contain the rising radical wing and violence
  • Military law was declared, and a government of scientific based based politicians (technocrats) were put in.


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Cyprus-Turkey Crisis
  • Turkey invaded the country of Cyprus in 1974, fourteen years after Cyprus had become a country in 1960. Turkey invaded in response to a Greek-backed military coup in Cyprus.
  • Turkey “imported” settlers in Cyprus, destroying a large part of Cyprus’ demographics, in the year after their invasion of the island.
  • The northern part of Cyprus declared itself independent in 1983, as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state only recognized by Turkey
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  • In the 1980’s and 90’s this northern part of Cyprus failed to function properly as a nation, and slid into poverty and became corrupt.
  • In 1992, the UN attempted to create a unification plan for northern Turkish Cyprus and Southern Greek Cyprus but this plan failed.
  • Negotiations between Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots still continue to this day, and are at a standstill, fearing that withdrawal or action may lead to disastrous consequences. The UN is still deciding whether to pull out all foreign military powers from Cyprus, but Turkey believes that if the UN were to do this, the results would lead to violence between the two countries.

1980 Turkish coup d'état
  • The military took power in Turkey after months of violence between leftist and rightist militants nearly brought Turkey to the point of civil war.
  • The United States supported the Turkish military, seeking stability in the midst of the U.S.-Iran Hostage Crisis and the ongoing Soviet War in Afghanistan.
  • Kenan Evren, the leader of the coup, took over the presidency and then rewrote the constitution to guarantee the military's political power.

1984 Kurdish Workers Party (PKK)
  • Some Kurds are demanding cultural rights and even independence or regional autonomy for the southeast.
  • Since 1984, the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK), a secessionist and sometimes terrorist organization, has been fighting the Turkish military in that area. Up to March 1999, about thirty thousand people, mostly PKK members, had been killed in the fighting.
  • The Turkish military's actions have engendered support for the PKK, which occasionally carries out cross-border raids from northern Iraq.
  • Turkish armed forces have compelled the evacuation of over a million civilians from the southeast and destroyed over two thousand villages.

1997 Turkish coup d'état
  • The Turkish military forced an Islamist-led coalition government to resign.
  • The militarily dominated National Security Council presented the prime minister, Necmettin Erbakan, with twenty demands, including closing religious lodges, enforcing laws prohibiting religious dress in public, closing some state-supported religious schools, cooling relations with Iran, and curtailing the activities of religious organizations.
  • The secular military feared that the Prime Minister was trying to change the basic nature of Turkish politics and government and turn Turkey into an Islamic-led theocracy like neighboring Iran.
  • After forcing Erbakan from power, the army turned the government over to more secular politicians.

Excellent and comprehensive coverage of 20th C. issues.




21st Century Issues

Economic Crisis of 2001
  • February 19, 2001- Then-President Ahment Necdet Sezer threw a copy of the Constitution of then-prime minister BÜelent Ecevit during a National Security Council meeting after a political fight.
  • This was a major blow to the domestic markets and caused 11 banks to go bankrupt. It gave the Istanbul Stock Exchange a historic 18.1% loss in shares on February 21
  • The Lira (the Turkish currency) lost half of its value, and the interest rates of loans increased.
  • This caused thousands of businesses to close, and During a meeting with the Economy Correspondents Association, they realized and totaled to the price of the crises was TL(Turkish Lira) 251.56 billion
  • Prime Minister Ali Babacan claims that the debt would be TL 381.88 lower if the economy crisis did not hit.Screen_Shot_2012-02-10_at_10.22.44_PM.png
  • Today, Turkey is still recovering from the economy crisis



2003 Istanbul Bombings
  • November 15, 2003 and November 20, 2003
  • Bombing carried out by suicide bombers, linked to members of Al-Queda
  • Two separate bombings, carried out by separate groups of people a week between each other
  • Fist bombing was an attack on the Neve Shalom and Beth Israel synagogues
  • First bombing- two trucks carrying bombs slammed into the synagogues
  • Second bombing was exploded at the headquarters of the HSBC Bank and the British Consulate, among the people killed the top British official in Istanbul
  • The second bombing was under a Britain consulate building, one of the worst attacks in British diplomatic history
  • Left 57 dead and 700 wounded
  • Need some context here - why would Al-Qaeda be bombing Turkey which is a Muslim nation?





Anti Americanism
  • January 27, 2012Screen_Shot_2012-02-10_at_10.26.09_PM.png
  • Anti-Americanism can be defined as “prejudice, distrust, and often hatred against the USA”
  • Once the United States entered Iraq, not only did the region become divided, but also, an Iraqi Kurdistan region was established in the North of Iraq. The majority of the Turkish people, considering this fact, thought that the United States were creating significant danger for Turkey by entering Iraq.
  • Turkey is upset that the United States is endangering them by entering Iran, but purely by the thought that the USA is the most powerful imperialist, they also feel the pressure of the fierce military of the US (why do the Turkish perceive it this way?)
  • With Obama as president, it is a hopeful future for Turkey and the US. Obama has a prominent Muslim middle name, and is now welcomed by many Muslim societies because they feel as though they have a connection and can trust him through their faith
  • Obama’s visit to Turkey is very important. In his speech there, he indicated the beginning of a new era, Turkey was the first predominantly Muslim country Obama visited.
  • During his speech, Obama praised Turkey for its independence war, respect for Islam and a common ground for future relations. This is CRUCIAL in bringing relief to those who are worried about America’s approach to Islam, or the likewise.


Secular vs. Religious Rule
  • Turkey is the only one of fifty-seven majority Muslim states in which secularism is constitutionally enshrined.
  • Turkey doesn’t meet the democratic standards of the rest of Europe
  • Turkish law guarantees neither freedom of religion nor freedom of speech
  • Three major Muslim party’s since 1970’s that have a chance of gaining power
  • The head scarf is not only for Islamic women’s modesty, but also the symbol of the tension between Europeanization and Islamization
  • They verbally dissociate their party—and themselves—from political Islam while also including Islamic identity politics and, like many Islamist parties across the globe, also engaging in anti-Christian polemics
  • The AKP is the group currently leading Turkey
  • AKP- Justice and Development Party became the ruling party in Turkey, conservatism, economic liberalism. Their conservatism is limited to social and moral issues, the economist party is mildly Islamist, although people think otherwise
  • The best-solution for Turkey is neither AKP nor a coup by Turkish secularists, but to have the European Union and the US encourage them to strengthen the civil society by making the weak institutions of Turkish democracy stronger.
  • Moderate Islamists want to Islamize, not democratize


Bombing plot resembles a coup 2008-2009
  • Plan Sledgehammer- A plan to bomb two Istanbul mosques and to escalate tensions with Greece by forcing Greek jets to down a Turkish plane over the Aegean Sea to show that the government is inept(according to documents obtained by Taraf)
  • Represented a coup plot
  • Thought that these are attempts from AKP supporters to cripple army and to remove a major problem in their plan to turn Turkey into an Islamic State
  • There are more than 40 suspects, among them are two retired generals who are accused of being ringleaders


I would have liked to see some attention to Turkey's effort to become members of the EU. Also, some clearer discussion of Turkey's role in the Middle East, in particular their stance on 9/11 and the the 2011 Arab Spring, would make your wiki more responsive to the essential and content questions listed on the rubric.


Important Turkish Personnel

Abdulhammid II (1842-1918)
  • Ottoman sultan from 1876 to 1909,external image lZlRRpP5UVEDTkkPVT3zmiEcfQNXM32_XulgrIK9lW-T3DYvz3LMS83Zo5ImSFuC7P58tF4IltfPOPuwvOVRet0krVb7cmHKFAbKzfSoHa6Qk1lQ0Hs
  • granted Turkey a parliamentary constitution in 1876 but the following year this was rescinded and he ruled as a dictator for more than thirty years.
  • Conducted the reform movement of Tanzimat
  • Although some administrative reforms were made in certain provinces such as Syria and Palestine, little was done in the rest of the Empire.
  • Adopted a policy of pan-Islamism in opposition to Western intervention in Ottoman affair
  • He transmitted the first Ottoman constitution
  • Led to the military revolution of the Young Turks in 1908.
  • Hamid was forced to summon a parliament in 1908 by the Young Turks movement. He attempted a counter revolution in April 1909, and when this failed he was deposed and exiled to Salonika.


Ismail Bey Gasprinski (1851-1914)
  • Began Pan-Turkism, which aimed at the political union of all Turkish-speaking peoples, began among Turks in the Crimea and along the Volga River
  • Advocated reforms in curriculum and teaching methods, with an emphasis on advancing the abilities of students in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
  • In 1907 he helped found Ittifak-i Muslumanlar (Union of Muslims) urging not political but linguistic and cultural unity among the Muslim Turkic peoples of Russia. During the following decade, he voiced his motto of "Unity in language, thought and action," he traveled, urging educational and social reforms in the Islamic world.
  • Also championed women’s rights and the importance of education for Muslim women.
  • Attempted to create a common Turkish language
  • Despite opposition from existing traditional Muslim educa­tors, by the time of Gasprinskii’s death, around five thousand Usul-i Cedid schools had been established.


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Mustafa Kemal (1881-1938)
  • Commander who led Turkish nationalists in fighting back the invading Greeks and their British backers. Became president after the sultan was overthrown.
  • Founded the Republic of Turkey (first republic in southwest Asia) ushered sweeping reforms:
    • Separated laws of Islam from laws of nation
    • - Abolished religious courts and replaced with new legal system based on European laws
  • Granted women right to vote and hold public officeLaunched government funded programs to industrialize Turkey and spurred economic growth
  • Turkey gained new sense of its national identity, influence so strong, Turkish people gave him the name “Ataturk” → father of the Turks
  • The ideological foundation of Atatürk's reform program became known as Kemalism. Many ideas from Kemalism were used in Turkey’s constitution.

Kenan Evren (1917- now)
  • Lead a military coup that placed Turkey under direct military rule for the following three years: the military junta drafted and adopted a constitution on which Turkey relied until recent reforms were implemented.
  • After September 12, 1980 Evren assumed the Chairmanship of the National Security Council and also functioned as the Head of State.
  • He became the 7th President of the Republic of Turkey as a result of the vote held on November 7, 1982.
  • Kenan Evren took over the presidency and then rewrote the constitution to guarantee the military’s political power
  • On November 9, 1989, he left the Presidency after concluding his Constitutional term.external image FalPub-rTdPw8o5z0JnB53-YdcM7ScVPWi8vsuv8Fi8zHDMvXs6-eTwM0pQy6Q-Gq6ROkxmo--67oPLYNpLE18VXaLHb5ElpClu-PZIz6UWzRYBySKU


Recep Tayyip Erdogan (1954- now)
  • Current Prime Minister of Turkey since 2003.
  • Leader of an Islamic movement, he has successfully challenged the nation’s secular elite, and pushed the military out of its longstanding role as guardian of the country’s secular governing tradition.
  • Erdogan has also moved the country further up the road to European Union membership.
  • His Justice and Development Party, known by its Turkish acronym AK, has brought the country strong economic growth of 8.9 percent.







Major News Articles

“France Turkey row: Genocide bill faces court hurdle”
  • January 31, 2012
  • strife between France and Turkey
  • France would like to make a bill that would say that anyone in Turkey who denounces that the massacring of the Armenians is genocide, will be jailed and fined 45, 00 Euros ($57,000).
  • Turkey disagrees with this bill and claims that the death toll was inflated in reports, and was much smaller. Turkey therefore, rejects the term genocide when speaking of the topic about the massacring of the Armenians. Turkey argues that the bill will “reject the freedom of speech” of the people.
  • “Ankara warned earlier that Turkey planned to respond with unspecified measures against France if the bill became law.”
  • Turkey argues that the bill will “reject the freedom of speech”; Turkey has now asked that the constitutional court examine this issue.

“Turkey marks Holocaust Remembrance Day”
  • January 27,2012
  • Turkey is the first Muslim nation show the film Shoah, a film about the Holocaust of the Jewish people, created by the Aladdin project, a Paris-based group which tries to improve Jewish-Muslim relations.
  • Turkey hopes that this will lead them through a future of mutual understanding, tolerance, and co-existence. The Turk’s also believe that it will promote a better mutual understanding between Jews and Muslim’s.
  • The video was film hopes to provide excellent aid in mutual understanding between the different peoples but also, on the flip side, escalated their fight with France over the French legislation making it a crime to deny the Armenian genocide.
  • This video was shown to try and suppress Holocaust denial and to educate the people of Turkey on the subject. Shoah was shown in a time of growing anti-Semitism in Turkey.
  • This documentary hopes to provide excellent aid in mutual understanding between the different peoples but also, on the flip side, escalated their fight with France over the French legislation making it a crime to deny the Armenian genocide.

Both are sound sources. I would have liked to see you hi-light additional issues in Turkey since we spent significant time on this one in class.


Videos and Articles

Links from our pictures:

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Link to Primary Source of 1982 Constitution: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_127495.pdf


Summary
( I like the video about the war, a brief descriptive caption would be useful)
Turkey’s history is filled with periods of highs and lows, from bloody massacres and bombings, to eventually a democracy after periods of violence. Turkey went through four major military coups throughout the course of the 20th century, but after many, it ended up with stronger constitutions representing the countries newfound democracy. When Turkey first became the Republic of Turkey, as opposed to the Ottoman Empire in 1923, they established themselves as a secular and democratic nation. With a strong leader, Mustafa Kemal, or Ataturk, the country was able to reform by separating religion from government, and industrialized and boosted the economy. Ataturk’s beliefs became known as Kemalism. The Turkish military has used a sense of “constitutional authorization” to justify their political interference. The first of Turkey’s military coups occurred in 1960, after violent clashes between the government and the people, which had restricted freedom of the press, and thereafter created a new democratic government. Turkey went through three other coups for the duration of the 20th century, in 1971, 1980, and a post-modern coup in 1997. While the 1971 coup was largely seen as an attempt to contain the rising radical followers and violence, the 1980 coup was against the social forces that were responsible for an average daily loss of twenty lives in street fighting between the left and right political parties. Although the Turkish constitution certainly does not endorse coups, Turkish popular distrust of politicians has generally led the public to support military action. At the turn of the 21st century, Turkey went through a major economic crisis, and lost TL 251.56 billion in total. Currently, Turkey is struggling to find a balance between the secular and religious aspects as a modern country. Although violent quarrels still do go on in Turkey, such as the 2003 bombings, and the bomb plot in 2008, Turkey is moving forward to refine the government in an effort to stabilize and balance this ever-changing nation.
Overall, the information on the wiki is very well researched and comprehensive. Your wiki gives an excellent sense of the domestic history and issues of Turkey following WWI. Where it falls short is in its coverage of Turkey's significance in the Middle East and in the World.

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