Coat of Arms of Saudi Arabia
Coat of Arms of Saudi Arabia

Flag of Saudi Arabia
Flag of Saudi Arabia

Flag of Saudi Arabia
Flag of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

"There is no God but Allah: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah"this quote needs some context
created by Rachel Kurland, Sophie Gong, and Supriya Goel

Overview:-Maps-Timeline/History-20th Century Issues-21st Century Issues-Floating of an Oil of Ocean-Key Personnel-Summary

Saudi Arabia 1923
Saudi Arabia 1923
Current map of Saudi Arabia
Current map of Saudi Arabia

you need to provide some analysis of these maps...what is the visitor seeing...what differences are notable between the two maps?
  • 1932: Saudi Arabia is established by King Abd-al-Aziz, also known as Lion of Najd
  • 1938: Oil is found and production begins under the US-controlled Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company)
  • 1972: Saudi Arabia takes twenty percent control over Aramco, which means the US has less control of their oil
  • 1973: An oil boycott is lead by Saudi Arabia against Western countries who support Saudi Arabia (do you mean Israel??)in the October War against Egypt and Syria leads to oil prices to be four times more
  • 1979: Saudi Arabia creates peace with Israel and severs its diplomatic relations with Egypt until 1987
  • 1980: Saudi Arabia gains all control of Aramco from the US
  • 1991-1994: Saudi Arabia attacks Iraq (why?)
  • 2001: Saudi Arabia and Iran sign an important security agreement to combat terrorism, drug-trafficking, and organized crime
  • 2003: US pulls out most of its troops in Saudi Arabia. (why did US have troops there in the first place?) Both countries remain allies.
  • 2011: More rights are in place for women, such as the right to vote, run in municipal elections, and to be appointed to the consultative Shura Council (the most influential political body in the country) how do these developments correspond to the Arab Spring?

Mosque in Mecca
Mosque in Mecca

this photo of the Mosque needs some context and explanation

  • Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab (Muslim scholar and reformer) fled to a town ruled by Muhammad bin Saud; fleeing from religious leaders against his teachings (of Wahhabism) when?
  • Wahhab and Saud made a pledge to restore the original teachings of Islam to Muslims When?
  • By 1818 Wahhabi's had started a Jihad against other forms of Islam and united most of the Arabian Peninsula under Wahhabism
  • Their power was stolen by the Ottoman Empire and their Egyptian allies
  • They took refuge until the early 1900's until King Saud and his followers united the Arabian Peninsula, including Mecca and Medina (holy cities).
  • King Saud became the leader of Arab nationalist movements
  • In 1932, the nation was named the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
This information would be better delivered in a cohesive paragraph than bullet points. The vehicle you have chosen does not allow for analysis and context.

Pre/Post WWII:
  • Oil is discovered in 1938, and Saudi Arabia becomes very wealthy and is able to provide its people with health care and education
  • Saudi Arabia breaks off diplomatic ties with Germant in 1939, then with Japan in 1941
  • Saudi Arabia remains neutral in the war, but leans toward the Allie's side and declares war on Germany and Japan in 1945. But, because of the declaration, little military actions were taken
  • Saudi Arabia's oil is a great significance to the allies in WWII because it provides strategy
  • Diplomatic relations are formed with the US in 1943, which allows the US to build an air force base near the city of Dhahran
  • After WWII, Saudi Arabia becomes a founding member of the United Nations and joins the Arab League
    This is a list of what happened in Saudi Arabia in the 20th C. but is not a sound explanation of the issues that are present. you need to provide some analysis for your facts...again, a paragraph is likely better suited to this task than bullets.
During WWII:
  • Broke off diplomatic ties with Germany in 1939 and Japan in 1941
  • Saudi Arabia was neutral, but it did supply the allies against Germany with large quantities of oil
  • Diplomatic relations were formed with the US in 1943, and the US was allowed to build a base for the air force near the city Dhahran
  • In 1945, Sauda Arabia announced war on Germany and Japan, but there were no military actions taken against them as a result of the declaration
what was the Saudi motivation behind these choices? You need to provide some context and analysis

Pre/Post 9/11:
  • In 1990, Saudi Arabia does not(approve?) improve of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and the US steps in. The Kuwaiti citizens and government stay in Saudi Arabia, but citizens of Yemen and Jordan are expelled because of their government supports Iraq.
  • Saudi Arabia is involved in air and land attacks on Iraq in 2001
  • After 9/11 Saudi Arabia and the US's relations are tense because 15 of the 19 terrorists were Saudis
  • Even though Saudi Arabia had close ties to the US, there are many influential religious establishments that are anti-American and support Islamic militancy (aggression to support Islamic beliefs)
  • In 2001, King Fahd says that terrorism is not allowed under Islam
  • In 2003, the US took away troops located in Saudi Arabia from the war the US led on Iraq
  • In 2003, Al Qaeda is suspected of killing around thirty-five westerners at housing complex in their capital, Riyadh
  • The US had troops in Saudi Arabia for the past ten years, which caused a clash because Saudi Arabia is a very conservative Islamic nation
  • Osama Bin Laden is a Saudi terrorist
  • The presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia's holy cities, Mecca and Medina, were one of the Laden's reason for the attacks
  • In 2010, a total of 149 militants have been arrested over the past eight months, most of them supposedly belonging to al-Quaeda
  • Saudi Arabia says that they are committed to anti-terrorism, but the US and other countries question them because of these attacks

again, this is a list of what happened that provides some good information. But, it still needs some context and analysis to help the reader get a true sense of Saudi Arabia as a nation in the modern Middle East
"Saudi Monarchy Looks to Troubled Future":_

In "Saudi Monarchy Looks to Troubled Future," the article talks about how the government may not be able to handle both the rising amount of Islams who are struggling with poverty and are militant. The money from the oil is not lasting Saudi Arabia because of the growing population, and the peace may only last as long as the money can last. With the number of unemployment, poverty, and crime growing, the future of Saudi Arabia can lead to a lot of trouble.

"Saudi Militants Ready for Jihad":_

This article interviews a religious scholar in Saudi Arabia, and talks about whole regions getting ready for the Jihad (holy war). In the article, "Saudi Militants Ready for Jihad, the scholar says, "If a Muslim country is attacked, all neighboring countries should support it in the battle." Overall, Saudi Arabia is in a conflicted position because it depends on US military support, but it does not want to turn away from its own people, which have a huge amount of anti-Americans. If the US leads a war on Iraq, it may strain tensions in Saudi Arabia and its relationship with the US.

your article summaries are very well done and give the visitor a good sense of what they will be looking at when they click the link. Some of the grammar, word choice, tense, etc. is a little bit clumsy.


Oil Production
Oil Production

The Tripartite Declaration of May 25, 1950:__
An agreement between the US, Britain, and France to try to keep stability between the Arabs and the Israelis, and maintain a free oil flow. They wanted to neutralize the Arab-Israeli conflict. and for the Arab's and Israeli's support against communism. (context of cold war would be helpful here)

Fun Facts about Oil
  • Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia by the US in the 1930's, however, production did not begin until after WWII
  • When Saudi Arabia discovered oil, it changed the nation. They no longer had to depend on just farming and trade.
  • This then led to significant modernizing of the nation, and they are now one of the world's largest producers of oil
  • 1/5 of the world's petroleum comes from Saudi Arabia, and it is the leading producer and exporter
  • The oil makes up about 90% of the country's exports and about 75% of government revenues
  • Oil provides stability for the nation despite the fact that there are wars going on in neighboring nations

Not sure what this video is because you have not provided a description of what the visitor will see when the access it. Also, it would be helpful to provide a log-in and password here. Pretty sure most don't know it off the top of their heads.


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King Abdulaziz
King Abdulaziz

King Abdulaziz: (1932-1953)

  • set on road to modernization
  • starting building infrastructure of country
  • roads and basic communication sysems
  • modern technology
  • improved health care and agriculture
  • very diplomatic in foreign affairs-integrity, honesty, and reliable

King Saud
King Saud

King Saud: (1953-1964)
  • Abdulaziz's oldest; continued his legacy
  • Development of education-many schools were esablished
  • 1957: First Saudi monarch to visit US
  • 1962: Sponsered international islamic conference that would become the Muslim World League, headquartered in Makkah

King Faisal
King Faisal

King Faisal: (1964-75)
  • Respected tradition
  • Started first series of economic and social development plans that would rapidly help its growing industry
  • Showed commitment to Islamic world-especially in foreign policy
  • Provided a voice of peace and stability during Arab-Israeli wars and the oil crisis of 1973

King Khalid
King Khalid

King Khalid: (1975-1982)
  • Period of wealth and development of physical infrastructure of Saudi Arabia
  • Prime member in forming Gulf Cooperation Council-promotes economic and security among members

King Fahd
King Fahd

King Fahd: (1982-2005)
  • "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques"
  • Continued developments
  • Saudi Arabia grew as a political and economic power
  • Diversified economy
  • Private investments, enterprise, and companies
  • Nationwide elections
  • Projects to expand the country to accommodate the millions that come to the country each year
  • Worked to resolve Arab-Palestinian conflict, Iraq invasion of Kuwait, and conflicts in many countries
  • Proposed plan in 1981 to resolve Arab-Israeli conflict, which gave Palestinians an independent state
  • Wanted to resolve the civil war in Lebanon and help end the fighting and pave the way for reconstruction movements
  • Organized international people to drive Iraqi's out of Kuwait
  • Humanitarian issues-provided emergency assistance to countries affected by natural disasters-earthquake in Turkey-1999 and Iran-2003; Tsunami in Southeast Asia-2004

King Abdullah
King Abdullah

King Abdullah: (2005-)
  • Respect for religion and history of heritage
  • Closely supervised election of councils
  • Makes a number of visits to the US
  • Saudi Arabia=leadership in defense of Arab and Islamic issues for peace and security
  • International diplomacy
  • Many efforts to fight terrorism
  • Good relations with US

Saudi Arabia has an immensely powerful and rich history, which led them to become one of the most significant countries in the world. It began as the birthplace of Islam and later the Wahhabi movement, which was a radical reform of Islam. Saudi Arabia is very different from other nations, especially during the time of the World Wars. It gained its independence in 1932 before other nations who had been part of the Ottoman empire. The discovery of oil reserves in 1938 in the region of Al-Hassa, along the Persian Gulf coast, was a pivotal point for the nation's history. They no longer had to just depend on pilgrimages to Mecca for the income of the government, trade, or agriculture, because they now had something very valuable and very precious in their hands. By 1939 the kingdom began to export oil and during the time of the World Wars, the production of oil increased drastically and began begin sold to allies. Between 1939 and 1953, Aramco's, the Arabian American Oil Company, oil revenues increased and the nation became entirely dependent on oil for their income. Saudi Arabia's wealth of oil is of major importance to the world today. It rose from a nation struggling to provide for itself, to a prospering asset to the world. your summary sort of stops short, You summary needs a sentence or two explaining Saudi Arabia's role on the world stage, particularly given the events of the Arab Spring.
You have been very thorough in gathering information, you need to do more to analyze what you found so that you are more clearly responding to the content and essential questions outlined in the assignment