Libya


By Emma Blau, Adam Selsman, and Corey Glassman
*Color of heading font shows author as represented in title





*Black heading font shows collaborative effort
*Articles, Videos, and Books found by C.G

Libyan Flag Under Qadhafi's Rule (Left) Compared With Pre and Post-Qadhafi Flag (Right)
Libyan Flag Under Qadhafi's Rule (Left) Compared With Pre and Post-Qadhafi Flag (Right)

Libyan National Anthem Pre And Post- Qadhafi

I like how the youtube clip provides lyrics and historical context for the national anthem. I also like that you have drawn a distinction between pre-and post Qadaffi Libya with the flags. It would have been interesting for you to include a caption explaining the symbolism of how the flag changed,

Issues: 1900-1910

("issues" seems to be a bit of misnomer here...maybe history or development would work better)
In the early 1900’s Libya was still part of the Ottoman Empire. Libya was surrounded in northern Africa by land controlled by France and England. Because of this, France and Italy created a secret agreement to help each other conquer new lands. France wanted Morocco and Italy wanted Libya. At the time, the area of Libya was split into three different regions; Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan.


Issues: 1911-1912
In 1911, Italy sent a letter to Istanbul saying that in 24 hours they were sending troops into Tripolitania and Cyrenaica to protect Italian citizens in these areas. Conveniently, a day later Italy declared war against the Ottoman Empire. The war lasted for a year. In 1912, the Turks decided it wasn’t worth the fight and that they had other problems that were important,(such as?) and agreed to signed the Treaty of Ouchy (Treaty of Lausanne). Libya was turned into an Italian colony. Due to World War I, Italy needed all their soldiers, and vacated most of Libya.


Issues: World War I The Senussi, a political and religious nationalist group, rose up and attempted to push the rest of the Italian troops out of Libya. Their attempts were successful and Senussi leader, Mohammed Idris, negotiated with the Italian government to return to the Ottoman Empire. They granted him the title of Emir, which means Muslim ruler, as long as he still recognized Italian sovereignty. The Turks convinced the Senussi leaders to band together against the British in Egypt. Libya made the mistake of going with the Turks and Germany, and they ended up losing and the leader of the Senussi campaign, Sayyid Ammed, was knocked out of power, allowing Idris to take power in Cyrenaica, and eventually become the first King of Libya.

Issues: 1923-1934 In 1923, Facism drives Idris back out of command and to hide in Egypt until 1944. Tension was created with the rise of Mussolini. Libyans rebelled against Mussolini and nearly reached the point of full scale war, but Italian leaders took the leader of the rebellions, Omar Mukhtar, captive. Libya then came to an agreement with Italy to stop rebelling.
Issues: 1940-1945Libya was used by Mussolini as their base for attacking Egypt, until 1942, when the allies invaded and took over control of Cyrenaica.


Issues: 1945-1969

On November 21, 1949, the United Nations General Assembly voted to grant independence to Libya by January 1, 1952. On December 24, 1951 Libya’s independence was officially granted under the rule of King Idris. Under King Idris, relations with the US and the UK were good; however, in 1959 the discovery of oil put a strain on it. why??? Libya did not break off ties with the US but they joined with five nations to suspend oil exports to them. The oil suspension was a result of the termination of the United States’ economic assistance program. Also during this time, negotiations revolving around US and UK military bases were being made, in the process of the negotiation, the US agreed to give up Wheelus Airfield. From this point on tension between the US and Libya continued to grow.

Issues: 1969-1979

Ever since 1969, when Colonel Mu’Ammar Qadhafi took power in Libya, the nation has had diplomatic issues with non-Arab nations such as The United States of America and Europe (awkward wording, Europe is a continent not a nation. It has had connections to terrorist groups throughout the middle east. Qadhafi got rid of the Libyan Constitution, and put his own ideals in place. These ideals can be read in Qadhafi's book titled The Green Book, Part One. This lead Jimmy Carter, the President of the United States in 1979, to name Libya a “state sponsor of terror”. Watch: 60 Minutes Read: The Green Book Part One

both the 60 Minutes Clio and the Green Book part one are good resources. What they are lacking are any good explanation of why one should click the links and dive deeper into the information. What will be revealed by the sources? What should one be looking for/ noting as they watch and read?

Issues: 1987-2001

In 1987, a Pan-Am Airways flight was bombed over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 270 people. When an investigation was completed, it was determined that Libyan intelligence played a role in the bombing, creating tension between Libya and the western world. Libya refused to accept responsibility for the bombing, angering the west even more. Libya’s only allies were other middle-eastern, Arab nations. Because Qadhafi and Libya acted in such an unpredictable fashion, the U.S and Europe thought of Libya as the Rogue Regime before September 11, 2001.
Lockerbie Bombing-E.B
Lockerbie Bombing-E.B


Issues: 2001-2003

After September 11th, Colonel Qadhafi wanted to seperate himself and his country from terrorism. In 2003, Libya disposed of its nuclear and chemical weapons programs in order to create stronger diplomatic relations with The United States and Europe, along with taking responsibility for the Lockerbie bombings and compensating the families of the victims of the bombing. Libya claimed that it wanted to help solve the problems that it created. In response to the changes in order to please their new allies, Colonel Qadhafi said, "Whether you like it or not, the future is with more liberalism, more freedom, with democracy," Read: NYT Article, Libya Gives Up Arms

Issues: 2011

However, many middle eastern experts did not think a liberal and stable Libya would last, and they were correct. On February 15, 2011, a revolt broke out in Benghazi, Libya. The Libyan people felt as if Qadhafi’s regime was too harsh, and did not give individuals enough rights. Libyan citizens looked to put an end to his regime. A civil war broke out, and it ended October 20, 2011, with the murder of Colonel Qadhafi. Currently, Libya is attempting to create a new constitution, and establish equal rights for all, which did not happen under the regime of Qadhafi. Read: NYT Article, New Libyan Constitution
Anti-Qadhafi Rebels-E.B
Anti-Qadhafi Rebels-E.B


Primary Source
Lausanne Treaty 1923- This portion of the treaty removed Turkey's privileges in Libya, allowing the Italian government to take control, and begin to turn Libya into its own country.Article 22Without prejudice to the general stipulations of Article 27, Turkey hereby recognises the definite abolition of all rights and privileges whatsoever which she enjoyed in Libya under the Treaty of Lausanne of the 18th October, 1912, and the instruments connected therewith.Read: Full Lausanne Treaty
..wondering why you chose this as your primary source?


Key People

Omar Mukhtar: Native leader of the resistance against the Italian takeover of Libya. He was caught by Italian soldiers and put to death.
-E.B and -A.S

Omar al-Mukhtar-E.B
Omar al-Mukhtar-E.B

King Idris al-Sanusi: The first king of an independent Libya and the Chief of the Senussi. -E.B and -A.S
King Idris al-Sanusi -E.B
King Idris al-Sanusi -E.B


Mu'Ammar Qadhafi- Libyan head of state who took power in 1969. He abolished the Libyan constitution, and got Libya involved with various terror groups. Colonel Qadhafi’s regime took the rights away from the Libyan people, and they revolted, causing civil war. On October 20, 2011, Muammar Qadhafi was killed by Libyans who opposed his rule. -C.G
Mu'Ammar Qadhafi-E.B
Mu'Ammar Qadhafi-E.B





Timeline

· 1911: Italy conquers Libya
· 1942: Allies force Italy out of Libya
Libya is divided (Fezzan to France, Cynenaica & Tripoitania to Britain)
· 1951: Libya becomes independent under King Idris
· 1969: King Idris is deposed due to a military coup led by Qadhafi, who then takes the title of prime minister
· 1973: Qadhafi declares a cultural revolution. People’s committees are formed. Libya also occupies the Aozou strip in northern Chad.
· 1988: the US accuses Libya of the Lockerbie bombing
· 1989: The Arab Maghreb Union is formed
(Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Maurintani, Torisia)
· 2002: Libya & US try to mend their relationship
· 2003: Libya takes responsibility for bombings. Libya also abandons nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs.
· 2006: US says it will restore diplomatic ties with Libya
· 2011: Anti Qadhafi movements⇢Qadhafi is killed⇢Libya declares liberation


Maps

Map of Pre-1945 Libya- A.S
Map of Pre-1945 Libya- A.S





Map of Modern Day Libya -C.G
Map of Modern Day Libya -C.G


Summary

Before 1945 Libya was still three regions, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Fezzan. During the Italo-Turkish war, Libya became a colony of Italy. In WWI, The Senussi, a Muslim-political nationalist group, began to rebel. This was eventually suppressed by Italian dictator, Mussolini. Libya started to begin to move towards becoming its own country once they sided with the allies during WWII.-A.SDuring the 24 year period of time between 1945 and 1969, the relationship between Libya and the US began to dissolve as a result of the discovery and production of oil in Libya.-E.BSince Colonel Mu’Ammar Qadhafi took power in 1969, Libya has struggled to maintain a good diplomatic relationship with the United States and Europe. The country has been associated with many terror groups, and was involved with one of the worst acts of terrorism in the 20th century, the Lockerbie bombings. However, in 2003, Libya found the need to have better diplomatic relations with the world, and abolished its weapons program. Currently, the country is in a state of rebuilding after its 2011 civil war. -C.G
Libyan Rebels Raising Flag-E.B
Libyan Rebels Raising Flag-E.B



Overall the wiki is engaging. You have provided good images and video. I would have liked to see something more contemporary as well in the video selection. Some of your visuals and links could benefit from explanations of what they represent.
19 points



Overall the information that you have presented is good. At times, it stays a bit too much on the summary side and does not supply enough analysis.In particular, I would have liked to see more specific information about the rule of Libya under Qadaffi and the political, economic and social consequences of his rule. Such information would bring the events of 2011 into sharper focus. More specific analysis of the details would also bring into sharper focus the significance of Libya to the Middle East and the world at large. You have done a good job detailing the strained relationship with the US.
20 points


Total points for this section 20 /25


It appears that your group worked well together and had a clear plan for dividing the work and creating a cohesive wikispace. work is clearly in your own words.

Wiki 44 /50